IRS Creates a Coronavirus Site

Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

You can find it here.

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Interested in becoming an IFG client?  Why play phone tag?  Schedule your 15-minute introductory phone call!

Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

Jim Lorenzen is a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® professional and An Accredited Investment Fiduciary® in his 21st year of private practice as Founding Principal of The Independent Financial Group, a fee-only registered investment advisor with clients located in New York, Florida, and California. He is also licensed for insurance as an independent agent under California license 0C00742.  IFG helps specializes in crafting wealth design strategies around life goals by using a proven planning process coupled with a cost-conscious objective and non-conflicted risk management philosophy.

The Independent Financial Group does not provide legal or tax advice and nothing contained herein should be construed as securities or investment advice, nor an opinion regarding the appropriateness of any investment to the individual reader. The general information provided should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from an appropriate licensed professional.

What You Should Know About The SECURE Act!

Effective January 1, 2020


Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®
 
The SECURE Act contains quite a few changes that impact both individuals and business owners.   

Two Key Changes For Individuals:

70-1/2 is out. 

New Law Raises Age for RMDs from 70½ to 72: Under the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act of 2019, if you turn 70½ years old on or after January 1, 2020, you are eligible for the law’s changes and generally must begin taking RMDs by April 1 of the year following the year that you turn age 72.

People who turned 70½ years old in 2019 are not eligible for the law’s changes and generally must begin withdrawing money by April 1, 2020

 

 

 

You can use the RMD calculator from FINRA here.  

No more “Stretch IRA” (for most).

It’s eliminated for most beneficiaries of Traditional and Roth IRAs whose owners pass away in 2020 or later (Note: previous rules still apply to certain beneficiaries and to all inherited IRAs whose owners passed away before 2020).  There are no mandatory annual distributions, but the entire inherited Traditional or Roth IRA balance must be withdrawn by the end of the tenth year.  

There are some exclusions as well as other changes – talk with your financial or tax advisor.

Business Owners

There are a number of key changes for business owners, including

  • Expanded access to annuities within retirement plans in order to help retirees establish their own “pension” plans.
  • Retirement plan statements will be required to include a lifetime income disclosure at least once during any 12-month period
  • Multiple-Employer plan rules relaxed – this allows a number of unrelated businesses to set-up a plan with one provider/administrator in an effort to reduce costs – this will help small businesses most.

Of course, there’s more; but, this should give you an idea of why it will pay to work closely with your financial and tax advisors.

Have a great 2020!

Jim

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Interested in becoming an IFG client?  Why play phone tag?  Schedule your 15-minute introductory phone call!

Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

Jim Lorenzen is a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® professional and An Accredited Investment Fiduciary® in his 21st year of private practice as Founding Principal of The Independent Financial Group, a fee-only registered investment advisor with clients located in New York, Florida, and California. He is also licensed for insurance as an independent agent under California license 0C00742. IFG helps specializes in crafting wealth design strategies around life goals by using a proven planning process coupled with a cost-conscious objective and non-conflicted risk management philosophy.

The Independent Financial Group does not provide legal or tax advice and nothing contained herein should be construed as securities or investment advice, nor an opinion regarding the appropriateness of any investment to the individual reader. The general information provided should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from an appropriate licensed professional.

Losing A Spouse Can Be Expensive…

… you could get hit with the widow’s penalty tax!

Few people think about this – and I wish I could be the smart guy that thought of this for this post, but I wasn’t[i].   It’s something called the widow’s penalty tax; it affects the surviving spouse.

After a spouse’s death, the survivor usually goes from a joint return to filing as a single filer, usually resulting in an increase in the survivor’s tax bracket.   This happens because often the survivor’s income can be almost as much as they were filing when using a joint return – Bingo! – a large tax bill.  One advisor’s client went from a 24% bracket (filing jointly) to a 32% bracket as the survivor[ii]

How to protect yourself?

A series of partial IRA conversions (to Roth IRAs) over several years, keeping the amounts low enough not to change your tax bracket, can help.  Do this after age 59-1/2 but before taking Social Security benefits.   The distributions will avoid the 10% penalty and, at the same time, take advantage of the low joint rate.   By the way, it’s worth mentioning that the current tax law, which has lower brackets than prior law, sunsets in 2026, meaning brackets are set to return to their previous higher rates.   Another benefit:  the conversions will reduce your taxable income when you are forced to begin your required minimum distributions (RMDs) after age 70-1/2.

Good idea, huh?

Jim

[i] Donald Jay Korn, Financial Planning, August 2019

[ii] Bob Morrison, founder of Downing Street Wealth Management in Greenwood Village, Co., cited in the same article.

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Interested in becoming an IFG client?  Why play phone tag?  Schedule your 15-minute introductory phone call!

Jim Lorenzen is a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® professional and An Accredited Investment Fiduciary® in his 21st year of private practice as Founding Principal of The Independent Financial Group, a fee-only registered investment advisor with clients located in New York, Florida, and California. He is also licensed for insurance as an independent agent under California license 0C00742. IFG helps specializes in crafting wealth design strategies around life goals by using a proven planning process coupled with a cost-conscious objective and non-conflicted risk management philosophy.

The Independent Financial Group does not provide legal or tax advice and nothing contained herein should be construed as securities or investment advice, nor an opinion regarding the appropriateness of any investment to the individual reader. The general information provided should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from an appropriate licensed professional.

What Will “Medicare for All” Really Cost?

Politicians don’t live under the same health care or retirement systems the rest of us do – so promises, for them, are easy to make.

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Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

I’m not sure how many of the candidates who are running on government supported Medicare for everyone majored in economics or finance – it maybe explains the obvious their all-to-obvious failure to address the question directly.

Sen. Elizabeth Warren, for example, promised that it won’t cost the middle class “one penny” – a feat that hasn’t been accomplished by any country now offering universal health care.  According to an inciteful Advisor Perspectives article by Rick Kahler, CFP® and registered investment advisor based in Rapid City, S.D., the middle class in those countries pay income taxes of up to 40% and a national sales tax equivalent to 15-25% of income.

While Senator Warren estimates the cost over a decade at $20 trillion in new federal spending – a cost the middle class is somehow to avoid – Estimates from six independent financial organizations put the figure in the $28-36 trillion range.

A Forbes article describes the tax increases aimed at wealthy individuals.  Included are:

  • Eliminating the favorable tax rate on capital gains
  • Increasing the “Obamacare” tax from 3.8% to 14.8% on investment income over $250,000
  • Eliminating the step-up in basis for inheritors
  • Establishing a financial transaction tax of 0.10%

The capital gains tax increase, the step-up in basis, and the financial transaction tax will all affect middle class investors – potentially anyone with a 401(k) or an IRA.  Rick Kahler points out that the American Retirement Association estimates that the financial transaction tax alone will cost the average 401(k) and IRA investor over $1,500 a year.

The 0.10% financial transaction tax, for example, would apply to all securities sold and purchased within a mutual fund or ETF, in addition to any purchases and sales of the funds themselves by investors.  Mr. Kahler estimates these costs can run 0.20% to 0.30% a year to fund investors.   When you consider some index funds charge only 0.10% in total expenses, the increase comes to 200% or more.

Eliminating the step-up in basis and the favorable capital gains treatment will certainly cost middle class investors more than a penny.  A retiree leaving an heir $200,000 with $100,000 in cost basis, could easily cost the middle class inheritor $10,000 to $20,000 or more in taxes.

Candidates can promise – that doesn’t cost anything – but it’s the electorate who needs to do the math.  After all, our elected representatives don’t live in the same health care world the rest of us do.

Jim

 

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Jim Lorenzen is a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® professional and An Accredited Investment Fiduciary® serving private clients since 1991.   Jim is Founding Principal of The Independent Financial Group.  He is also licensed for insurance as an independent agent under California license 0C00742. The Independent Financial Group does not provide legal or tax advice and nothing contained herein should be construed as securities or investment advice, nor an opinion regarding the appropriateness of any investment to the individual reader. The general information provided should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from an appropriate licensed professional.

 

When A Loved One Dies

It can be helpful if you know what has to be done in advance.

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Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

Earlier this past week I talked about Managing an Inheritance and provided a Lifeguide; but, a few readers emailed me asking if there was a checklist addressing what to do when a loved one dies.

This is a subject my wife an I can relate to, having lost both our parents between 2005 and earlier this year.   So, I thought many of you might find a fillable Lifeguide Helpful.

You can access it a 22-page guide here..

Hope this helps,

Jim


Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

Jim Lorenzen is a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® professional and an ACCREDITED INVESTMENT FIDUCIARY® serving private clients since 1991.   Jim is Founding Principal of The Independent Financial Group, a  registered investment advisor with clients located across the U.S.. He is also licensed for insurance as an independent agent under California license 0C00742. The Independent Financial Group does not provide legal or tax advice and nothing contained herein should be construed as securities or investment advice, nor an opinion regarding the appropriateness of any investment to the individual reader. The general information provided should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from an appropriate licensed professional.

How Can You Manage Your Inheritance?

Here are some tips that might help!

Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

For most people, there are certain times when events can feel overwhelming.  For most of us, when it’s a money event (retirement plan rollover, selling property, winning the lottery, etc.) it’s usually when we think, ‘What do I do now?  I don’t want to screw this up!”

Here are some tips, along with a LifeGuide, that might help:

Take your time. This is an emotional time…not the best time to be making important financial decisions. Short of meeting any required tax or legal deadlines, don’t make hasty decisions concerning your inheritance.

Identify a team of reputable, trusted advisors (attorney, accountant, financial/insurance advisors). There are complicated tax laws and requirements related to certain inherited assets. Without accurate, reliable advice, you may find an unnecessarily large chunk of your inheritance going to pay taxes.

Park the money. Deposit any inherited money or investments in a bank or brokerage account until you’re in a position to make definitive decisions on what you want to do with your inheritance.

Understand the tax consequences of inherited assets. If your inheritance is from a spouse, there may be no estate or inheritance taxes due. Otherwise, your inheritance may be subject to federal estate tax or state inheritance tax. Income taxes are also a consideration.          

Treat inherited retirement assets with care. The tax treatment of inherited retirement assets is a complex subject. Make sure the retirement plan administrator does not send you a check for the retirement plan proceeds until you have made a distribution decision. Get sound professional financial and tax advice before taking any money from an inherited retirement plan…otherwise you may find yourself liable for paying income taxes on the entire value of the retirement account.

If you received an interest in a trust, familiarize yourself with the trust document and the terms under which you receive distributions from the trust, as well as with the trustee and trust administration fees.

Take stock. Create a financial inventory of your assets and your debts. Start with a clean slate and reassess your financial needs, objectives and goals.

Develop a financial plan. No one would begin building a home (ordering out materials and beginning construction) without a well thought out plan, blueprints, and a budget; so, why build your financial future without one? 

Long-term plans don’t change just because temporary conditions do.

Consider working with a financial advisor (preferably a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® (CFP®) professional to “test drive” various scenarios and determine how your funds should be invested to accomplish your financial goals.  Interest rates, markets, inflation, and taxes can all change.  But, your plan, if tested, is like the lighthouse in the storm – if you’re plan has been stress-tested, it’s the one thing that won’t move when everything else seems to be in turmoil.

Evaluate your insurance needs. If you inherited valuable personal property, you will probably need to increase your property and casualty coverage or purchase new coverage. If your inheritance is substantial, consider increasing your liability insurance to protect against lawsuits. Finally, evaluate whether your life insurance needs have changed as a result of your inheritance.

Review your estate plan. Your inheritance, together with your experience in managing it, may lead you to make changes in your estate plan. Your experience in receiving an inheritance may prompt you to want to do a better job of how your estate is structured and administered for the benefit of your heirs.

Don’t forget your LifeGuide!

Hope this helps,

Jim

 


Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

 

 

 

 

 

Jim Lorenzen is a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® professional and an ACCREDITED INVESTMENT FIDUCIARY® serving private clients since 1991.   Jim is Founding Principal of The Independent Financial Group, a  registered investment advisor with clients located across the U.S.. He is also licensed for insurance as an independent agent under California license 0C00742. The Independent Financial Group does not provide legal or tax advice and nothing contained herein should be construed as securities or investment advice, nor an opinion regarding the appropriateness of any investment to the individual reader. The general information provided should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from an appropriate licensed professional.

CDs, Fixed Annuities, and Indexed Annuities Share Some Common Risks- copy

This time the unnamed beneficiary gets zero.

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Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

The most common risk associated with all fixed-rate investments is interest rate risk.  If interest rates rise—and the fed has already sent some pretty strong signals higher rates are on the way—investors could be stuck with the old lower rates, especially  if the rate  hikes occur during the penalty period.

This may not be a huge issue with CDs most people tend to “ladder” shorter-term CDs .  Missing out on a half-point increase for six months is really an opportunity cost of 0.25%.  The bigger problem, of course, is the loss of purchasing power on an after-tax basis.

Fixed annuities tend to have surrender charges  with longer  time spans—and therefore have a larger interest rate risk exposure.   Penalty periods of five to ten years aren’t  uncommon.  Waiting several years through several potential rate increases can have a larger impact.    The longer surrender period usually does come with higher interest crediting rates, to be sure; but, it’s worth doing the math—it’s hard to get ‘sold’ on longer terms and accompanying surrender charges when the outlook for increases is unknown.  Given how long rates have been so low, a pendulum swing isn’t  hard to believe.  Remember, the insurance company’s annuity products purchased today will be backed by low-yielding bonds held today for most of the penalty period.

Fixed Indexed Annuities offer an opportunity for higher interest based on the performance of some outside index.  Despite the fact many people choose the S&P500 index as the calculation benchmark, these products are not investments in the stock market.  They are still insurance company IOUs paying a fixed rate—it’s just that the fixed rate paid each year is determined by the performance of the outside index; however,  they always come with some limiting factor—usually a ‘cap’ on the amount they’ll credit or crediting based on some sort of ‘spread’ factor.   Many professionals figure a fixed indexed annuity might actually return 1-2% more than it’s fixed-rate guarantee.   So, one that offers a fixed rate of 4% might be expected to provide a long-term return of 5-6%;  however, the return could be less.  It all depends on the performance of the external index chosen, so short-terms carry more risk than long term, if history is any indication.

Remember, too, that insurance companies can change their  crediting rates.  Nevertheless,  when you compare the expected  return of an FIA to a 5-year CD, it’s still a popular alternative, providing other factors meet with your needs.  Remember, however, longer-term products also mean longer-term  interest rate exposure, as noted above.

Premium Bonuses, too, may not be as good as they sound.  While they provide purchasing incentives, they virtually always result in lower crediting rates, further increasing interest rate risk.  It may be better to seek a shorter-term product without a bonus that allows you to move to a higher rate product sooner.  Why get stuck in a long-term contract?

Personal Take:   Generally, whatever you want to accomplish with an annuity might be better accomplished in another way, often with greater liquidity and sometimes even better benefits.  In any case, it pays to do your homework.   Just as all investments can’t be good, all annuities aren’t necessarily bad.  For many, the peace of mind knowing income is  protected is worth the trade-off.  Just remember, tax-deferred means tax postponed.  Do YOU know what tax rates will be when you plan to begin taxable withdrawals?   Neither do I.

Jim


Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

 

 

 

 

Jim Lorenzen is a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® professional and an ACCREDITED INVESTMENT FIDUCIARY® serving private clients since 1991.   Jim is Founding Principal of The Independent Financial Group, a  registered investment advisor with clients located across the U.S.. He is also licensed for insurance as an independent agent under California license 0C00742. The Independent Financial Group does not provide legal or tax advice and nothing contained herein should be construed as securities or investment advice, nor an opinion regarding the appropriateness of any investment to the individual reader. The general information provided should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from an appropriate licensed professional.

How To Disinherit Your Unnamed Beneficiary

This time the unnamed beneficiary gets zero.

              Getty Images

Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

In my last post, I revealed that virtually everyone with a 402(k), IRA, or even an annuity has an unnamed beneficiary who may get the lion’s share of the money you’ve worked so hard to get.  If you haven’t read it, you can find it here.

That post showed you how you could offset that inheritance and give more money to your kids.   This post will show you how you can disinherit this unnamed beneficiary altogether – at least from the above-mentioned accounts.

I used a hypothetical example of someone who had three kids living in a high tax state like California and a $600,000 IRA.   If the kids are two-income households and successful, they could be paying 40% to the state and federal governments for the money they end-up taking from the inherited IRA.

$600,000 divided by 3 kids = $200,000 per kid.  At 40%, each kid would be paying $80,000 in taxes, realizing $120,000 after tax.   The state and federal governments would therefore receive $80,000 x 3 kids = $240,000  –  this would be DOUBLE what each kid would end-up with!

What if you could disinherit the government altogether?

You guessed it:  There’s only ONE tool I’ve found that can do this, if combined with the right strategy.

In my last post, I talked about using a life insurance policy and the children using the tax-free death benefit to pay the taxes, keeping their IRA inheritance in-tact.  This time we do it differently.

Starting with the same $600,000 IRA, we purchase a $600,000 survivorship life insurance policy (it pays after the last of two spouses dies).  This time, however, instead of using the death benefit to pay the taxes, the death benefit goes to the children tax-free. 

The strategy: 

  1. Name a tax-exempt charity as beneficiary of your IRA.
  2. Purchase a life insurance policy for full estimated IRA value (we’ll use $600,000).
  3. At death, the charity receives the IRA proceeds tax-free.
  4. Your kids receive the $600,000 ($200,000 each) tax-free.
  5. The state and federal governments get zero.

Your kids received $80,000 more than the $120,000 they would have received, a 70% increase using our hypothetical tax bracket – that’s $240,000 went to them instead of the government, who got nothing.

How much did the life insurance cost?   That depends on the policy and the company, but I think it’s less than $240,000, ya think?

Jim


Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

 

 

Jim Lorenzen is a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® professional and an ACCREDITED INVESTMENT FIDUCIARY® serving private clients since 1991.   Jim is Founding Principal of The Independent Financial Group, a  registered investment advisor with clients located across the U.S.. He is also licensed for insurance as an independent agent under California license 0C00742. The Independent Financial Group does not provide legal or tax advice and nothing contained herein should be construed as securities or investment advice, nor an opinion regarding the appropriateness of any investment to the individual reader. The general information provided should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from an appropriate licensed professional.

Your IRA Has An Unnamed Beneficiary!

And, this one could end-up with the lion’s share of all you worked for.

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Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

It’s one thing if you forget to name someone as a beneficiary – you have three kids and forgot to name one of them (oops!) – but, it’s even worse when someone you didn’t even name may end-up with the lion’s share of your retirement account!

Can’t happen?  Oh yes, it can.

Let’s assume you have a 401(k) or IRA valued at $600 000.   Who would you like to inherit it?  Chances are it’s your loved ones/kids.   So, why haven’t you given it to them already?  Simple:  You may need the money.   But, when you do pass away, your beneficiaries must include withdrawals in their taxable income.   It’s not uncommon for retirees to die sometime between ages 75 and 95… this is often the time the IRA passes to the next generation at or near their peak values.

Leaving timing and amounts aside, if you live in a high-tax state like California, the combination of other taxable income and withdrawals can easily put someone in a higher tax bracket.

Will assume the IRA is $600,000 and you have three successful kids.  It wouldn’t be unrealistic for a successful two-income family to end-up in a combined state and federal tax bracket of 40%

Here’s what each will end-up with:   $200,000 (1/3 of the IRA) less $80,000 (40% state and federal taxes) = $120,000.

Oh, yeah… your 4th kid:  Uncle Sam.   He received $80,000 x 3 kids = $240,000.  That’s THREE TIMES what each of your kids received!

Happy now?

How do we keep that extra $240,000 in your three kid’s pockets? You can use a tax-offset strategy.  It’s simple:  You transfer the risk.   Now, this isn’t something you can do with stocks, bonds, gold, or real estate.  There’s only one tool in the financial toolbox I know of that can do this.  

The strategy:  You purchase a $600,000 survivorship life insurance policy.  When the parents die, the children inherit the IRA.   They also each inherit 1/3 of the life insurance proceeds ($200,000) which, by the way, comes tax-free.  They can use the death benefit proceeds to pay the taxes they owe for inheriting the IRA.  They keep the entire IRA (each is now $80,000 richer) and your family has retained an additional $240,000.

Each received $200,000 instead of $120,000.   That’s a 70% increase!

They also now have choices.  Because taxes aren’t an issue, they could liquidate the IRA and invest the money where they’ll have complete liquidity and no future required minimum distributions or explore other options available to them.

Either way, they’re better off.   Thanks, mom and dad.


Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

Jim Lorenzen is a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® professional and an ACCREDITED INVESTMENT FIDUCIARY® serving private clients since 1991.   Jim is Founding Principal of The Independent Financial Group, a  registered investment advisor with clients located across the U.S.. He is also licensed for insurance as an independent agent under California license 0C00742. The Independent Financial Group does not provide legal or tax advice and nothing contained herein should be construed as securities or investment advice, nor an opinion regarding the appropriateness of any investment to the individual reader. The general information provided should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from an appropriate licensed professional.

Changes To Medicare Plans to Begin Soon!

Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

Beginning this January, Medigap plans will no longer cover the Part B deductible for those who are turning age 65.   Since the deductible is only $185, it won’t be a big deal for most people.

What’s worth noting is that Plan F – the plan that covered all of Part A and Part B, including deductibles – will no longer be sold to those turning age 65 beginning January 1, 2020.  Anyone who is 65 or older before that date can still apply for Plan F, but they may not want to.

Charles Paikert, writing in Financial Plannng’s September issue quoted insurance broker Stuart Millard who noted that even those who are already in Plan F, while not affected, may want to pay attention to this change.  Plan G, which is nearly identical to Plan F, is still available and older clients – and they may want to switch!   Why?  Sarah Caine, a specialist quoted in the same piece, points out that since Plan F is being discontinued, no new clients are coming in.  This means the pool of patients will diminish as people age out.  Since no new people will be replenishing the risk-sharing pool, it’s possible that Plan F may not be as stable as it once was.

For those who can afford it, Medigap plans may be appealing because they’re not restricted to doctors in a network or geographic location whereas Medicare Advantage plans may not be as beneficial for people who split their time between two homes or are active travelers.

Medicare health planning is a highly specialized field.  Too often people will simply shop online or deal with a jack-of-all-trades “financial advisor” who’s licensed to sell everything.  In addition, many people are unaware that there is income testing for Medicare, going back two years.  Those who have vested and restricted stocks, as well as those who are in COBRA plans may want to examine their situations carefully, including annual evaluation of their Part D prescription drug plan where prices change, as well as the offerings, each year.

Medicare has strict deadline rules, as well.  Miss a deadline and you can lose important rights, such as Medigap’s guaranteed issue right.

As I said, this is a highly specialized area and the services of an experienced insurance broker who is a health care specialist just might save you thousands of dollars.

Jim

Note:  The Independent Financial Group does not sell health insurance and Jim Lorenzen is not a health insurance broker.


Jim Lorenzen, CFP®, AIF®

Jim Lorenzen is a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® professional and an ACCREDITED INVESTMENT FIDUCIARY® serving private clients since 1991.   Jim is Founding Principal of The Independent Financial Group, a  registered investment advisor with clients located across the U.S.. He is also licensed for insurance as an independent agent under California license 0C00742. The Independent Financial Group does not provide legal or tax advice and nothing contained herein should be construed as securities or investment advice, nor an opinion regarding the appropriateness of any investment to the individual reader. The general information provided should not be acted upon without obtaining specific legal, tax, and investment advice from an appropriate licensed professional.